by Jenny Rees, UNL Extension
During pesticide education trainings, I've been sharing about pest resistance to pesticides. Pest (weed, disease and insect) resistance to pesticides (eg. herbicides, insecticides and fungicides) is not a new thing. In fact, pest resistance to any pest management tool, tactic or strategy (chemical or nonchemical) has been documented from nearly the time when humans began cultivating plants.
For example, in the mid-1950s, weed scientists predicted repeated use of any herbicide could lead to shifts in weed species composition within a weed community and that herbicide tolerance in weeds can quickly increase with repeated use of the same herbicide. In the early-1970s the first cases of weed resistance occurred in pigweed species showing resistance to atrazine.
There is well documented literature about weed resistance. Worldwide about 368 herbicide-resistant weed biotypes reported to be resistant to 19 different herbicide modes of action. For example, 40 dicot and 15 monocot species are known to have biotypes resistant to triazine herbicides. Also, at least 50 weed species have been reported to have biotypes resistant to one or more herbicide families. Repeated use of the same herbicide was always the main reason for weed resistance to herbicides worldwide.
Insects have shown a similar pattern in developing resistance to many types of insecticides used to control crop pests. Insecticide resistance is a global issue for a wide variety of agriculturally important pests and has been reported in over 540 insect and mite species. Nebraska has had a long history with insecticide resistant pests; the western corn rootworm has been particularly difficult and has developed resistance to numerous insecticides for both larval and adult controls.
In addition, corn rootworm in parts of Nebraska and the Midwest have developed resistance to some of the Bt proteins found in genetically modified corn, leaving growers with fewer control options and greater management costs. In the United States alone, crop losses because of pesticide resistance are estimated at $1.4 billion annually.
Plant pathogens are also not exempt from significant development of resistance to fungicides. Currently, Frogeye Leaf Spot of Soybean and Fusarium Head Blight of Wheat are the only diseases known to have fungicide resistance in the U.S.
Among specialty crops grown in Nebraska there is fungicide resistance in Ascochyta Blight of Chickpeas. Corn, soybean and wheat crops but have not been identified to have resistance in Nebraska yet; however, the increased use of fungicides may lead to more resistance issues.
Fungicides are still a primary means of controlling plant diseases and many companies are developing products with multiple modes of action as a means of providing more durable products and manage resistance development.
On March 8 at the Clay County Fairgrounds, we are hosting a pest resistance workshop that is more hands-on in helping understand how to better mitigate the effects of weed, disease, and insect pest resistance on a farm. The workshop will be held from 9:30 a.m.to 2:30 p.m. This 5 hour workshop includes presentations on insect and pathogen resistance, herbicide-tolerant crops, herbicide mode of action and site of action groupings, how weed resistance develops and current state of weed resistance in Nebraska and Kansas. Attendees will also have a chance to conduct a hands-on exercise on controlling major multiple-resistant weed species.
Speakers include specialists from the departments of agronomy, orticulture, entomology and plant pathology. Pre-registration is required.
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The Horse's Mouth, by Duane
Lienemann, UNL Extension
There is so much going on this time of year it seems you don't have time to relax. To compound it all, last week's significant snow storm kind of pushed things a little further. I am not complaining, however, as it is nice to see some winter moisture. Quite honestly I have heard many people of my era say: "Now that is what it used to do!" There is a lot of truth to that, but at any rate the moisture and nitrogen in that snow is a welcome relief from what we haven't had in the past several years. I know it is a little tough on the cattle producers, especially with those that calf this time of year. But most everyone I know took the warnings to heart and were for the most part ready for this big one!
I, like most every other male (and some females) in this part of the country, enjoy football and all that goes with it. I couldn't wait to hear who signed with Nebraska's recruiting class and who got away, or if we had any surprises. I think the timing was about right, because another big football event followed signing day.
I have watched every one of the NFL's Super Bowl Games. Mostly to watch the game, but I also enjoy the commercials. They are always fun. It is too bad that PC (Political Correctness) is so much in vogue right now as I see that ultra-sensitivity cutting into the creativity and fun we used to have with the commercials. But maybe that is just me!
At any rate, regarding the Super Bowl, I read something that is appropriate, especially when I have been espousing AgVocacy! The following information was included in a Drover's Cattle Network article written by Laura Mushrush. I thought the information was timely and has some good ag advocacy material I think you will find fun and educational.
It's that time of year again for American's to gather around the big screen to catch the biggest football game of the year with friends and of course, good food. While Super Bowl food is most commonly pegged in the appetizer department, it has landed the football faceoff as the second biggest American eating holiday of the year, just behind Thanksgiving. According to the Calorie Council Control, the average American will shovel in 2,400 calories during the game. Here are some agfacts to chew on:
1. One cow hide makes 20 pigskins, aka footballs. The term pigskin comes from the 1800s when animal bladders, most typically pig, were inflated to be used as a ball since they had a round shape. One hundred twenty game balls are used during the Super Bowl, including 12 kicker balls, meaning six cow hides were tossed around the stadium on Sunday.
2. One and a quarter billion chicken wings were consumedby Super Bowl fans. That's enough to circle the Grand Canyon 120 times. The first chicken wings were fried up at Anchor Bar, Buffalo, N.Y., in 1964 and have been a tradition ever since the first Super Bowl on Jan. 15, 1967.
3. 325.5 million gallons of beer was drank on Super Bowl Sunday. One bushel of barley produces approximately 565 twelve-ounce containers of beer. A little bar stool math tells us that 6,145,132.74 bushels of barley were used to make the brews for the game, and that barley farmers are the real MVP.
4. One hundred thirty-nine million pounds of avocados (about 278 million avocados) were expected to be eaten during the game, most likely to be smashed up into sweet guacamole. To get a visual, this is enough avocados to fill a football field end zone to end zone in a pile 53 feet high. This is a 15 percent surge from 2015, said Hass Avocado Board, and has even lead to Avocados from Mexico to buy a 30-second commercial spot on game day.
5. Ten million pounds of ribs were sold during Super Bowl week, according to the National Pork Board.
6. Twelve and a half million pounds of bacon were also consumed.
7. More than 11 million pounds of potato chips were snacked on. It takes four pounds of raw potatoes to make one pound of chips, meaning potato farmers fed the country 44.8 million pounds of spuds on Sunday.
8. An estimated 14 million hamburgers were served.
9. Four million pizzas were expected to be delivered by Dominos, Pizza Hut and Papa Johns. Estimating that each pizza had 8 ounces of cheese, that was 2 million pounds of cheese or 20,000,000 pounds of whole milk.
10. Nearly 4 million pounds of popcorn were served on Sunday. Fans also consumed 8.2 million pounds of tortilla chips and 3 million pounds of nuts.